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Ook deze aanval liep vast op de taaie Duitse verdediging van het klooster en de stad. Bij de eerste aanval mei leed het korps zware verliezen, maar stelde wel het Britse Achtste Leger onder generaal Oliver Leese in staat om door de Duitse linies in de vallei van de rivier Liri beneden het klooster te breken.
De tweede aanval mei verliep ten koste van zeer zware verliezen onder de Poolse troepen. Het werd door de Polen uitgevoerd met de hulp van Franse hulptroepen, gerekruteerd onder de Algerijnse en Marokkaanse bergbewoners.
Zij verdreven de Duitsers de genoemde eerste luchtlandingsdivisie uit de heuvels rondom het klooster en omsingelden deze bijna. Na afloop trokken zij moordend en verkrachtend de omliggende dorpen in.
Deze oorlogsmisdaden staat bekend als Marocchinate. De verovering van Monte Cassino maakte de opmars van Britse en Amerikaanse troepen naar Rome mogelijk.
Bij de gevechten zijn Van deze Poolse soldaten sneuvelden er ongeveer 4. In het Poolse nationale bewustzijn wordt grote betekenis toegekend aan deze slag, want dit was voor de Poolse troepen aan het westfront in Europa een van de grootste overwinningen op de Duitsers tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog.
Terwijl het Poolse leger in het Westen , de Poolse regering in Londense ballingschap en het Armia Krajowa in de periode van de Volksrepubliek Polen onderwerpen waren die taboe waren verklaard, mocht men wel pas vanaf de jaren zestig — als een soort uitlaatklep — de Poolse bijdrage in de Slag bij Monte Cassino verheerlijken.
Bijna alle Polen kennen het lied "Rode klaprozen op de Monte Cassino", dat het volgende refrein heeft:. Union Slopes of St. Uit Wikipedia, de vrije encyclopedie.
Slag om Monte Cassino. Overgenomen van " https: Lokale afbeelding gelijk aan Wikidata Wikipedia: Commonscat met lokaal zelfde link als op Wikidata Wikipedia: The abbey was dissolved by the Italian government in The building became a national monument with the monks as custodians of its treasures.
It was rebuilt after the war. After the reforms of the Second Vatican Council the monastery was one of the few remaining territorial abbeys within the Catholic Church.
On 23 October , Pope Francis applied the norms of the motu proprio Ecclesia Catholica of Paul VI  to the abbey, removing from its jurisdiction all 53 parishes and reducing its spiritual jurisdiction to the abbey itself—while retaining its status as a territorial abbey.
The former territory of the Abbey, except the land on which the abbey church and monastery sit, was transferred to the diocese of Sora-Cassino-Aquino-Pontecorvo.
The history of Monte Cassino is linked to the nearby town of Cassino which was first settled in the fifth century B. It was the Volsci who first built a citadel on the summit of Monte Cassino.
The Volsci in the area were defeated by the Romans in B. The Romans renamed the settlement Casinum and built a temple to Apollo at the citadel.
Modern excavations have found no remains of the temple, but ruins of an amphitheatre, a theatre, and a mausoleum indicate the lasting presence the Romans had there.
Generations after the Roman Empire adopted Christianity the town became the seat of a bishopric in the fifth century A.
Lacking strong defences the area was subject to barbarian attack and became abandoned and neglected with only a few struggling inhabitants holding out.
He then reused the temple, dedicating it to Saint Martin , and built another chapel on the site of the altar dedicated to Saint John the Baptist.
The mountain shelters this citadel on a broad bench. Then it rises three miles above it as if its peak tended toward heaven. There was an ancient temple there in which Apollo used to be worshipped according to the old pagan rite by the foolish local farmers.
Around it had grown up a grove dedicated to demon worship, where even at that time a wild crowd still devoted themselves to unholy sacrifices.
When [Benedict] the man of God arrived, he smashed the idol, overturned the altar and cut down the grove of trees. He built a chapel dedicated to St.
Martin in the temple of Apollo and another to St. John where the altar of Apollo had stood. And he summoned the people of the district to the faith by his unceasing preaching.
In one story, Satan invisibly sits on a rock making it too heavy to remove until Benedict drives him off. In another story, Satan taunts Benedict and then collapses a wall on a young monk, who is brought back to life by Benedict.
Pope Gregory also relays that the monks found a pagan idol of bronze when digging at the site which when thrown into the kitchen gave the illusion of a fire until dispelled by Benedict.
Archaeologist Neil Christie notes that it was common in such hagiographies for the protagonist to encounter areas of strong paganism.
He contrasts this with the year struggle faced by St. Martin of Tours in western Gaul by pagans angry at his attacks on their shrines: And, of course, it must be remembered that Martin as a bishop was a much more prominent churchman than Benedict.
Martin, however, was thrust out of his monastery into the role of a missionary bishop in the fourth century. De Vogue writes "this mountain had to be conquered from an idolatrous people and purified from its devilish horrors.
And like conquering Israel, Benedict came precisely to carry out this purification. No doubt Gregory had this biblical model uppermost in his mind, as is clear from the terms he uses to describe the work of destruction.
At the same time, neither Gregory nor Benedict could have forgotten the similar line of action taken by St. Martin against the pagan shrines of Gaul.
In his earlier setting Benedict "had twice shown complete mastery over his aggressiveness, Benedict is now allowed to use it without restraint in the service of God.
Where Satan concealed himself behind underlings at Subiaco, at Monte Cassino he drops the masks to enter into a desperate attempt to prevent an abbey from being built, and "that the sole cause of this eruption of satanic action is the suppression of pagan worship on the high places.
Once established at Monte Cassino, Benedict never left. He wrote the Benedictine Rule that became the founding principle for Western monasticism , received a visit from Totila , king of the Ostrogoths perhaps in , the only remotely secure historical date for Benedict , and died there.
According to accounts, "Benedict died in the oratory of St. Martin, and was buried in the oratory of St. The Rule of St. Benedict mandated the moral obligations to care for the sick.
So in Monte Cassino St. Benedict founded a hospital that is considered today to have been the first in Europe of the new era.
The monastic routine called for hard work. The care of the sick was such an important duty that those caring for them were enjoined to act as if they served Christ directly.
Benedict founded twelve communities for monks at nearby Subiaco about 64 km to the east of Rome , where hospitals were settled, too, as adjuncts to the monasteries to provide charity.
Soon many monasteries were founded throughout Europe, and everywhere there were hospitals like those in Monte Cassino.
Martin and of St. John the Baptist, with additions from the eighth and eleventh centuries, together with their pre-Christian cellars.
The first one which Benedict built in the temple itself was only twelve meters long and eight wide. From this, we can infer a fairly small community.
The second oratory, on the mountain-top, where the pagan altar had stood in the open air, was of the same width but somewhat longer Monte Cassino became a model for future developments.
Its prominent site has always made it an object of strategic importance. It was sacked or destroyed a number of times. A flourishing period of Monte Cassino followed its re-establishment in by Abbot Petronax , when among the monks were Carloman , son of Charles Martel ; Ratchis , predecessor of the great Lombard Duke and King Aistulf ; and Paul the Deacon , the historian of the Lombards.
In , a donation of Gisulf II of Benevento created the Terra Sancti Benedicti , the secular lands of the abbacy, which were subject to the abbot and nobody else save the Pope.
Thus, the monastery became the capital of a state comprising a compact and strategic region between the Lombard principality of Benevento and the Byzantine city-states of the coast Naples , Gaeta , and Amalfi.
In Saracens sacked and then burned it down,  and Abbot Bertharius was killed during the attack. Among the great historians who worked at the monastery, in this period there is Erchempert , whose Historia Langobardorum Beneventanorum is a fundamental chronicle of the ninth-century Mezzogiorno.
Monte Cassino was rebuilt and reached the apex of its fame in the 11th century under the abbot Desiderius abbot — , who later became Pope Victor III.
Monks caring for the patients in Monte Cassino constantly needed new medical knowledge. As Naples is situated on the crossroad of many seaways of Europe, Middle East and Asia, soon the monastery library was one of the richest in Europe.